Genome Instability & Disease Volume 1. Issue 3 简介

文章来源: 作者: 发布时间:2020年09月18日 点击数: 字体:

 

Issue 3

1. Mechanisms of UV-induced mutations and skin cancer | Gerd P. Pfeifer


Ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun are harmful to the skin and can cause DNA damage. This damage can lead to the induction of genetic mutations and even skin cancer if not repaired properly. In this review, Gerd P. Pfeifer outlines the mechanisms of UV-induced DNA damage and the relevant DNA damage repair pathways. He explains how UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) can bring about DNA replication-dependent mutagenicity in mammalian cells, providing a potential strategy for treating sun exposure-induced cancer.


紫外线(UV)会对皮肤造成伤害,引起DNA损伤,如果修复不当或不加修复,将可能导致基因突变甚至皮肤癌。在本文中,Gerd P. Pfeifer介绍了紫外线诱导DNA损伤的机制以及相关DNA损伤修复的途径。他阐述了紫外线诱导的环丁烷嘧啶二聚体(CPD)如何引起细胞在DNA复制过程中的突变,为治疗日晒引起的皮肤癌提供了参考。


作者是来自美国范安德尔学院的Gerd P. Pfeifer院士



 

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Gerd P. Pfeifer院士 

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2. The prevention and resolution of DNA replication–transcription conflicts in eukaryotic cells | Wei Wu, Ian D. Hickson & Ying Liu


Eukaryotes require DNA for both DNA replication and RNA transcription. Failure to reconcile the contradictory relationship between replication and transcription can lead to genome instability, triggering cancer and other age-associated diseases. In this review, Ying Liu and colleagues outline the strategies that eukaryotes adopt to prevent or minimize DNA replication–transcription conflicts. Then they detail some of the important factors that help eukaryotic cells determine which strategy is best to adopt.  


在真核生物中,DNA复制与RNA转录都需要用到DNA作为模板,因此,从这个角度讲,DNA复制与RNA转录是竞争的矛盾关系。如果无法调和这两者的矛盾,将导致基因组不稳定,进而引发癌症和其他相关疾病。在这篇综述里,刘英和她的同事介绍了真核生物为防止或最小化DNA复制-转录冲突所采取的策略,以及影响采取最佳策略的一些重要因素。

 

本文通讯作者为来自哥本哈根大学的刘英教授,Wei Wu为第一作者,Ian D. Hickson院士为共同作者。



 

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刘英教授

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3. Helicobacter pylori infection induced genome instability and gastric cancer | Xiangyu Liu, Muhammad Irfan, Xingzhi Xu, Chi-Yen Tay & Barry J. Marshall


H. pylori infection is an important cause of gastritis and gastric cancer. In this review, Xiangyu Liu and colleagues explain how H. pylori infection can cause DNA damage and outline the mechanisms that alter the DNA damage response pathways in host cells. Improving our understanding of these mechanisms will shed light on the relationship between H. pylori infection, genome instability and gastric cancer, and might open avenues to develop new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.


幽门螺杆菌感染是胃炎和胃癌的重要原因。 在这篇综述中,刘向宇及其同事解释了幽门螺杆菌感染如何引起细胞的DNA损伤,并概述了幽门螺杆菌改变宿主细胞中DNA损伤反应途径的机制。这对我们进一步了解幽门螺杆菌感染与基因组不稳定性和胃癌之间的关系,提供了帮助,同时也为治疗胃癌,提供新的策略。

 

深圳大学的刘向宇研究员与来自西澳大利亚大学/深圳马歇尔实验室,诺奖获得者的Barry J. Marshall院士为共同通讯作者。刘向宇为第一作者,深圳大学的Muhammad Irfan,许兴智教授,Chi-Yen Tay为共同作者。



 

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Barry J. Marshall院士 

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4. Suppression of genomic instability by replicative senescence and crisis | Jan Karlseder


Replicative senescence and crisis serve as the final barrier in a cell's fight against cancer formation. In this review, Jan Karlseder highlights the relationship between replicative crisis and genome instability and details the underlying mechanisms that ultimately help to prevent cancer formation. Understanding these processes might guide the design of new, targeted strategies to prevent early cancer formation.


在癌症形成过程中,细胞会以DNA复制衰老与危机来对抗癌症,在这篇综述中,Jan Karlseder讲述了复制危机与基因组不稳定性之间的关系,并详述了最终有助于预防癌症形成的潜在机制。了解这些过程,可以帮助指导我们对癌症制定针对性的策略,预防早期癌症的形成。


本文的作者是来自Salk生物研究所分子与细胞生物学实验室的Jan Karlseder教授。




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Jan Karlseder教授:

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